V Performance and Ground Reference Maneuvers
B. Ground Reference Maneuvers
References 14 CFR ยง61; FAA-H-8083-2, FAA-H-8083-3
Objective To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with ground reference maneuvering which may include a rectangular course, S-turns and turns around a point
The applicant demonstrates understanding of:
K1 Purpose of ground reference maneuvers  
K2 Effects of wind on ground track and relation to a ground reference point  
K3 Effects of bank angle and groundspeed on rate and radius of turn  
K4 Relationship of rectangular course to airport traffic pattern  
The Applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks encompassing:
R1 Failure to divide attention between airplane control and orientation  
R2 Collision hazards, to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles and wires  
R3 Low altitude maneuvering including stall, spin, or CFIT  
R4 Distractions, loss of situational awareness or improper task management  
R5 Failure to maintain coordinated flight  
The applicant demonstrates the ability to
S1 Clear the area  
S2 Select a suitable ground reference area, line or point as appropriate  
S3 Plan the maneuver

The evaluator must select at least one maneuver for the applicant to demonstrate
S3a a: Rectangular course: Either a left or right pattern, 600 to 1000 AGL and an appropriate distance from the elected reference area 45° to the downwind leg  
S3b b: S-turns: enter perpendicular to the selected reference line, 600 to 100 feet AGL at an appropriate distance from the selected reference area  
S3c c: Turns around a point: enter at an appropriate distance from the reference point, 600 to 1000 AGL at an appropriate distance from the selected reference area  
S4 Apply adequate wind-drift correction during straight and turning flight to maintain a constant ground track around a rectangular reference area, or to maintain a constant radius turn on each side of a selected reference line or point.  
S5 If performing S-Turns, reverse the turn directly over the selected reference line; if performing turns around a point, complete turns in either direction as specified by the evaluator.  
S6 Divide attention between airplane control, traffic avoidance and the ground track while maintaining coordinated flight  
S7 Maintain altitude +/-100 feet, maintain airspeed +/- 10 knots