VI. Navigation
A. Pilotage and Dead Reckoning
References 14 CFR ยง61; FAA-H-8083-2; FAA-H-8083-25B; Navigation Charts
Objective To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge, risk management, and skills associated with pilotage and dead reckoning;
The applicant demonstrates understanding of:
K1 Pilotage and dead reckoning  
K2 Magnetic compass errors  
K3 Topography  
K4 Selection of appropriate:  
K4a a: Route  
K4b b:Altitude(s)  
K4c c: Checkpoints  
K5 Plotting a course to include:  
K5a a: determinging heading, speed and course  
K5b b: wind correction angle  
K5c c: Estimating time, speed and distance  
K5d d: True airspeed and density altitude  
K6 Power setting selection  
K7 Planned versus actual flight plan calculations and required corrections  
The Applicant demonstrates the ability to identify, assess and mitigate risks encompassing:
R1 Collision hazards to include aircraft, terrain, obstacles, and wires  
R2 Distractions, loss of situation awareness or improper task management  
The applicant demonstrates the ability to:
S1 Prepare and use a flight log  
S2 Navigate by pilotage  
S3 Navigate by means of pre-computed headings, groundspeeds and elapsed time  
S4 Use the magnetic direction indicator in navigation, to include turns to headings  
S5 Verify position within three nautical miles of the flight-planned route  
S6 Arrive at the en route checkpoints within five minutes of the initial or revised estimated time of arrival (ETA) and provide a destination estimate  
S7 Maintain the appropriate altitude +/-200 feet and heading +/-15°